A comprehensive list of Halal and Haram ingredients starting with the letter L. The list contains common uses of the ingredients in the food/medicine/cosmetic industries, sources and halal and haram status.
L-Cysteine (Generally Haram)
The majority of L-cysteine is obtained industrially by hydrolysis of animal materials, such as poultry feathers or hog hair. Despite widespread belief otherwise, there is little evidence that human hair is used as a source material and its use is explicitly banned in the European Union. Synthetically produced L-cysteine, compliant with Jewish kosher and Muslim halal laws, is also available, at a higher price. L-Cysteine is used as a processing aid for baking. Avoid unless the product is Halal certified. There are two companies who makes the Halal L-Cysteine and they are: 1. Wacker Chemie of Germany who make the L-Cysteiene by bacterial fermentation in which no alcohol is produced. It is also term as L-Cysteine from fermentation. 2. Ajinomonto Company makes L-Cysteine by synthetic method. This L-Cysteine is Halal certified by Council of Indonesia Ulema. (Source: The manufacturer names of halal L-Cysteine has been obtained from muslimconsumergroup.com).
Lactic Acid (Halal)
Lactic acid is an organic compound. In its solid state, it is white and water-soluble. In its liquid state, it is clear. It is produced both naturally and synthetically. Lactic acid is produced industrially by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (sugar, starch) or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde, that is available from coal or crude oil. Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, some cottage cheeses, and kombucha. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough breads.
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar. Lactitol is used in a variety of low food energy or low fat foods. High stability makes it popular for baking. It is used in sugar-free candies, cookies (biscuits), chocolate, and ice cream. A sugar alcohol is neither a sugar nor an alcoholic beverage. They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur naturally or be produced industrially from sugars.
Lactose is a disaccharide sugar composed of galactose and glucose that is found in milk. It is extracted from sweet or sour whey. Several million tons are produced annually as a by-product of the dairy industry. Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk is curdled and strained, for example in the production of cheese. Cheese production may involve animal derived ingredients. As a result, consume Lactose only if the product is Halal or Kosher certified. Lactose can also be precipitated from whey using ethanol (haram alcohol). Its bland flavor has lent to its use as a carrier and stabiliser of aromas and pharmaceutical products.
Lanolin, also called wool wax or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep breeds that are raised specifically for their wool. Historically, many pharmacopoeias have referred to lanolin as wool fat (adeps lanae); however, as lanolin lacks glycerides (glycerol esters), it is not a true fat. Lanolin and its many derivatives are used extensively in both the personal care (e.g., high value cosmetics, facial cosmetics, lip products) and health care sectors such as topical liniments. Lanolin is often used as a raw material for producing Vitamin D3 using irradiation.
Lanolin Alcohol (Halal)
Hydrolysis of lanolin yields lanolin alcohols and lanolin acids. Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. Lanolin alcohols are a rich source of cholesterol (an important skin lipid) and are powerful water-in-oil emulsifiers; they have been used extensively in skin care products for over 100 years.
Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is obtained from any part of the pig where there is a high proportion of adipose tissue.
Lecithin is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. Used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials. It is usually available from sources such as soybeans, eggs, milk, marine sources, cottonseed, and sunflower. Generally obtained from soybean oil. Consume if the source is vegetable based.
Licorice Root (Halal)
Liquorice, or licorice, is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a plant) from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume native to southern Europe and parts of Asia, such as India. Liquorice flavours are also used as candies or sweeteners, particularly in some European and Middle Eastern countries. Liquorice extracts have a number of medical uses, and they are also used in herbal and folk medications.
Locust Bean Gum (Halal)
Locust bean gum (LBG, also known as carob gum, carob bean gum, carobin, E410) is a thickening agent and a gelling agent used in food technology. Locust bean gum is a galactomannan vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the carob tree, mostly found in the Mediterranean region. Also see Carob Gum.